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To some, the Vietnam War was a crime — an attempt by the United States to suppress a heroic Vietnamese national liberation movement that had driven French colonialism out of its country.
To others, the Vietnam War was a forfeit, a just war needlessly lost by timid policymakers and a biased media. For many who study foreign affairs, the Vietnam War was a tragic mistake brought about by U.
Another interpretation, a fourth one, has recently emerged, now that the Vietnam War is history and can be studied dispassionately by scholars with greater, though not unlimited, access to records on all sides.
The emerging scholarly synthesis interprets the war in the global context of the Cold War that lasted from the aftermath of World War II to the fall of the Berlin Wall in and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in In this view, Vietnam was neither a crime, a forfeit nor a tragic mistake.
It was a proxy conflict in the Cold War.
Unlike the first two world wars, the Cold War began and ended without direct military conflict between the opposing sides, thanks to the deterrent provided by conventional forces as well as nuclear weapons.
Instead, it was fought indirectly through economic embargoes, arms races, propaganda and proxy wars in peripheral nations like Vietnam. The greatest prizes in the Cold War were the industrial economies of the advanced European and East Asian nations, most of all Germany and Japan.
With the industrial might of demilitarized Japan and the prosperous western half of a divided Germany, the United States could hope to carry out its patient policy of containment of a communist bloc that was highly militarized but economically outmatched, until the Soviets sued for peace or underwent internal reform.
The Soviet Union could prevail in the Cold War only if it divided the United States from its industrialized allies — not by sponsoring communist takeovers within their borders but by intimidating them into appeasement after convincing them that the United States lacked the resolve or the ability to defend its interests.
For this reason, most crises of the Cold War, from the Berlin Airlift and the Cuban Missile Crisis to the Korean and Vietnam wars, occurred when the United States responded to aggressive probing by communist bloc nations with dramatic displays of American resolve.
The majority of these tests of American credibility took place in four countries divided between communist and non-communist regimes after World War II: Germany, China, Korea and Vietnam. The Cold War soon turned hot in divided Korea and Vietnam. Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam. Direct Chinese military intervention in the Korean War ensured a bloody stalemate rather than reunification of the peninsula under a non-communist regime.
If we had pretended otherwise for such a long period, it was only because during the war we were not obliged to unveil our cards. Inthe Johnson administration won congressional passage of the Southeast Asia Resolution after the Gulf of Tonkin incident, using as a pretext for U.
63 rows · The United States purchases Potawatomi land in the Treaty of Tippecanoe () The . In , South Vietnam signed a military and economic aid treaty with the United States leading to the arrival () of U.S. support troops and the formation () of the U.S. Military Assistance Command. Mounting dissatisfaction with the ineffectiveness and corruption of Diem's government. U.S. Involvement in the Vietnam War: The Tet Offensive, In late January, , during the lunar new year (or “Tet”) holiday, North Vietnamese and communist Viet Cong forces launched a coordinated attack against a number of targets in South attheheels.com U.S. and South Vietnamese militaries sustained heavy losses before finally repelling .
The number of American forces peaked inwhen more than half a million U. At great cost in American and Vietnamese lives, the attrition strategy of Gen. William Westmoreland succeeded in preventing the Saigon regime from being overthrown by insurgents. The Tet Offensive of Januaryperceived in the United States as a setback for American war aims, was in fact a devastating military setback for the north.
In the United States, public opinion grew opposed to the costs in blood and treasure of the controversial war.- United States' Involvement in the Vietnam War Source Based Source one tells us that the American Anti-war movement was small in and was the view of the minority of people.
The writer splits the population up into three groups, neutral, pro-war and anti-war. U.S. Involvement in the Vietnam War: The Tet Offensive, In late January, , during the lunar new year (or “Tet”) holiday, North Vietnamese and communist Viet Cong forces launched a coordinated attack against a number of targets in South attheheels.com U.S.
and South Vietnamese militaries sustained heavy losses before finally repelling . In a “third” Vietnam war began—a continuation, actually—between North and South Vietnam but without significant U.S. involvement. It ended with communist victory in April The Vietnam War was the longest in U.S.
. The United States provided financial support to France's fight against Ho Chi Minh and the Viet Minh from the s until direct U.S. involvement.
While Americans were girding to fight the Civil War in , the French were beginning a century-long imperial involvement in Indochina.
What Americans call the Vietnam War was the second of three wars in Indochina during the Cold War, in which the United States, the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China intervened in shifting patterns of enmity and alliance.
The military history of the United States spans a period of over two centuries. During those years, the United States evolved from a new nation fighting Great Britain for independence (–), through the monumental American Civil War (–) and, after collaborating in triumph during World War II (–), to the world's sole remaining superpower from the late 20th century to present.