Trevor Phillips is right. It was a hangover from the days of postwar migration, when the first people to arrive here en masse were Caribbeans of African origin. When, a decade or so later, Asians began arriving in numbers, it was natural for them to be tagged on to the black identity. And in those days, when most were migrants to Britain, facing the same sort of colour-based barriers, there was a natural strong solidarity between all of us.
History[ edit ] The area along the Arkansas River had been inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous peoples of various cultures. They used the river for transportation as did European settlers after them, and for fishing.
By the time of encounter with Europeans, the historical Quapaw were the chief people in the area, having migrated from the Ohio River valley centuries before. In Thomas Phillips claimed a half section of land where Pine Bluff is located. Jefferson County was established by the Territorial Legislature on November 2, and began functioning as a county April 19, At the August 13, county election, the pine bluff settlement was chosen as the county seat.
At the time, the village had about 50 residents. Improved transportation aided in the growth of Pine Bluff during the s and s. With its proximity to the Arkansas River, the small town served as a port for travel and shipping.
Steamships provided the primary mode of transport, arriving from downriver ports such as New Orleans. They included the legendary Black Seminole leader John Horsewho arrived in the city via the steamboat Swan in This was cultivated on large plantations by hundreds and thousands of enslaved Africans throughout the state, but especially in the Delta.
The city had one of the largest slave populations in the state by and Jefferson County, Arkansas was second in cotton production in the state. Marmaduke tried to expel the Union Army in the Battle of Pine Bluff October 25,but was repulsed by a combined effort of soldiers and freedmen former slaves freed by the Emancipation Proclamation.
It was dispatched to guard Pine Bluff and was eventually mustered out there. The Union forces set up a contraband camp there to house the runaway slaves and refugees behind Confederate lines. Both adults and children eagerly started learning. By SeptemberProfessor Joseph C.
Pine Bluff and the region suffered lasting effects from defeat, the aftermath of war, and the trauma of slavery and exploitation.
Recovery was slow at first. Construction of railroads improved access to markets, and with increased production of cotton as more plantations were reactivated, the economy began to recover.
The first railroad reached Pine Bluff in December As personal fortunes increased from the s onward, community leaders constructed large Victorian -style homes west of Main Street. Meanwhile, the Reconstruction era of the s brought a stark mix of progress and challenge for African Americans.
Most blacks joined the Republican Party, and several were elected in Pine Bluff to county offices and the state legislature for the first time in history. Several black-owned businesses were also opened, including banks, bars, barbershops, and other establishments.
But in postwar violence inan altercation with whites ensued at a refugee camp, and 24 black men, women and children were found hanging from trees in one of the worst mass lynchings in U. The angry mob eventually forced over his custody from an Officer adamantly attempting to deliver the suspect to the jail house, then the crowd watched enthusiastically as he was hung and riddled with bullets.
The Election Law of had already made voting more difficult and also caused voter rolls to decrease. With the Democratic Party consolidating its power in what became a one-party state,  the atmosphere was grim toward the end of the 19th century for many African Americans.
Democrats imposed legal segregation and other Jim Crow laws. The majority of these emigrants came from the black-majority Jefferson, St. Francis, Pulaski, Pope, and Conway counties. The first telephone system was placed in service March 31, Wiley Jonesa freedman who achieved wealth by his own business, built the first mule-drawn, street-car line in October Throughout the s and s, economic expansion was also fueled by the growing lumber industry in the region.
Community leaders were concerned that the main channel would leave the city. After many years of regional haggling, because the bond issue involved raised taxes, the county built the Free Bridge, which opened in For the first time, it united the county on a permanent basis.
But they continued to work for their rights; they joined activists in Little Rock and Hot Springs in a sustained boycott of streetcars, protesting passage in of the Segregated Streetcar Act, part of a series of Jim Crow laws passed by the white-dominated legislature.
They did not achieve change then.Media Censorship in China. A China Daily essay emphasized Xi’s policy, but have recently been more consolidated under the State Council Information Office, which has taken the lead on. The “East Asian” approach received a fillip at the time of the Asian economic crisis in , with the subsequent emergence of members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, together with Japan, China and South Korea (ASEAN + 3).
Much ink has been spilled in recent years in favor of reforming the UN Security Council. This essay argues that expanding the permanent membership will not solve the Council’s problems and that eliminating the veto power or expanding it to more members is not feasible.
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