Opiummorphineheroinand related synthetics The opiates are unrivalled in their ability to relieve pain.
November, American opinion has always included some opposition to the non-medical use of any drug, including alcohol and tobacco.
From colonial times through the Civil War, abstentionist outcries against alcohol and tobacco sporadically provoked prohibitory legislation. One 18th century pamphleteer advised against the use of any drink "which is liable to steal away a man's senses and render him foolish, irascible, uncontrollable and dangerous.
Despite such warnings, alcohol and tobacco use took deep root in American society. De Tocqueville noted what hard drinkers the Americans were, and Dickens was compelled to report that "in all the public places of America, this filthy custom [tobacco chewing] is recognized.
Colonial residents and their predecessors relied on derivatives of natural substances to cure ailments, increase sexual potency, relieve pain--and to provide pure old fashioned pleasure. Until the late s, abstentionists and prohibitionists had a relatively easy task in identifying their targets for attack: Tobacco users were conspicuous in their enjoyment.
Alcoholic beverage drinkers could be found in every saloon, and alcohol was served openly in homes and at social gatherings. Even opium dens of the west coast were well known, and opium could be purchased readily, free from state or federal government controls.
Early prohibitionists may be the envy of the "anti-drug" movements of the twentieth century. Until the Controlled Substance Act was passed by Congress inanti-substance legislation was hard put to keep pace with or even to categorize the endless variety of natural substances and preparations, multisubstance compounds, synthetic derivatives and "improvements" upon the natural that were adopted by different subcultures in the search for a new high or an intensified religious experience.
Physician-prescribed medications, once used for legitimate treatment, came into use as alternatives to "illicit" substances.
Children inhaled glue and aerosols. Students, housewives, and truck drivers found a new way of life through consumption of prescribed and black-market sedatives and amphetamines. Even LSD was no longer just "acid.
And the crazy-quilt patterns of new legislation reflected that confusion. The resourcefulness of those determined to get high was remarkable. When one hallucinogen was outlawed, another took its place. With law enforcement agencies concentrating on dealers of marihuana and hashish, and putting more energy into locating users and sources of heroin, the "weekend" alcohol drinker soon had an opportunity to try smoking marihuana, found that he liked it, and often substituted it for alcohol at social occasions.
Younger Americans came to have increasingly easier access to "black market" marihuana, cocaine, prescription drugs, and animal tranquilizers.
Our European forebears, fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth century explorers, traders, and conquerors, were open to the pleasures and products of the new worlds. The European explorers from Columbus on found other [in addition to alcohol] mind-affecting drugs, and brought them with them.
Tobacco was discovered on Columbus' first voyage. Cocaine was found in large areas of South America. Caffeine and LSD-like drugs were found scattered all over the world They also imported opium. In a remarkably short space of time, western Europe was converted from an alcohol-only culture to a multi-drug culture Brecher, Tobacco was first introduced to Europeans by American Indians.
Sailors tried and adopted the practice, both smoking the leaf and chewing it, and brought tobacco home to England.
But where a habit could be found, a prohibitionist was not far behind. Inthe Catholic Church in Mexico passed a regulation forbidding smoking in church. In andPapal edicts against the use of tobacco were issued.
The European states, Constantinople, Japan, and Russia all had anti-tobacco laws, but the practice continued against all opposition.
Russia's Czar Michael Feodorovitch, first of the Romanoffs, in pronounced a penalty that tends toward overkill: However, the visitor noted, tobacco was a premium commodity in Moscow, and smokers would pay any price for the precious leaf Brecher Among other new habits the early explorers introduced into European culture were the many ways to enjoy caffeine: European settlers in America soon adopted the cassina plant to their own uses, preparing a tea they called "Black Drink," "Black Drought," or "dahoon," and later letting the leaves ferment to produce a brew containing both caffeine and alcohol Brecher, Spanish conquerors of Mexico found peyote in ritual use by the Incas who also had the habit of chewing leaves from the Erythroxylon coca plant.
The practice of coca leaf use was encouraged by Spanish rulers as a means of controlling the Indian natives; but the Europeans had strong doubts about the habit, and refrained from using it themselves. They did, however, try to curtail use of peyote and other indigenous herbal hallucinogens by the Aztecs, who had kept substance use as part of their religious practices since pre-Columbian times.
Indian tribal use of peyote continued in spite of Spanish opposition, and the practice is still found in some areas today. Cannabis sativa, too, was available in the early days of the new world.
This plant was not indigenous to the Americas, but brought to the area by the Spaniards, with cannabis first appearing in Chile, where the Spanish introduced it in Brecher, The plant became a staple crop for colonial farmers, who reportedly grew it for its fiber.
Along with tobacco, hemp became a major export crop for pre-Revolutionary American farmers.Drug Use By: Rodney A value that I hold near to my heart is the prevention of hardcore drug use. I have seen many fall to the hands of cocaine, my father included 2 / ILLICIT DRUGS (RESEARCH PROCESS OUTLINE) This report is a research issue that reports the use of illicit drugs.
The Drug Heroin Essay - Drugs Drugs have been around for hundreds of years. The majority of human societies throughout history have practiced recreational drug use in various forms. Probably the best known example of a recreational drug is alcohol, which most cultures have manufactured in one form or another.
By over 55 federal. Drug use in recent years has meant neither the social stigmas nor the revolutionary political convictions that were partners of the drug culture in the s.
One of the most significant patterns to emerge during the s is that there are no longer set stereotypes of drug users and drug use patterns. Jul 22, · Long before drug cartels, crack wars and TV shows about addiction, cocaine was promoted as a wonder drug, sold as a cure-all and praised by some of the greatest minds in medical history, including.
Performance enhancing drugs in sports has become a controversial issue in today's professional sports world, as pros and cons are discussed in the media and among Professional organizations.
Today's Words Essay on Performance Enhancing Drugs in Sports Athletes also seek this effect through the use of over the counter substances such. While the Romans embraced these drugs for recreational use because of the ease of obtaining them through trade, there was a long period of time after the fall of the Roman empire known as the Dark Ages where relatively few intoxicants were imported to Europe.