These two systems are also sometimes referred to as Chicago-style citations, because they are the same as the ones presented in The Chicago Manual of Style. If you already know which system to use, follow one of the links above to see sample citations for a variety of common sources. Notes and Bibliography or Author-Date? In this system, sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes.
When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission.
Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition Summary: This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation.
These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in The other documentation style, the Author-Date System, is nearly identical in content but slightly different in form and is preferred in the social sciences.
This manual, which presents what is commonly known as the "Turabian" citation style, follows the two CMOS patterns of documentation but offers slight modifications suited to student texts.
Notes and Bibliography NB in Chicago style The Chicago NB system is often used in the humanities and provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through footnote or endnote citation in their writing and through bibliography pages.
It also offers writers an outlet for commenting on those cited sources. The NB system is most commonly used in the discipline of history. The proper use of the NB system can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the intentional or accidental uncredited use of source material created by others.
Most importantly, properly using the NB system builds credibility by demonstrating accountability to source material. Introduction to Notes In the NB system, you should include a note endnote or footnote each time you use a source, whether through a direct quote, paraphrase, or summary.
Footnotes will be added at the end of the page on which the source is referenced, and endnotes will be compiled at the end of each chapter or at the end of the entire document. In either case, a superscript number corresponding to a note with the bibliographic information for that source should be placed in the text following the end of the sentence or clause in which the source is referenced.
If a work includes a bibliography, which is typically preferred, then it is not necessary to provide full publication details in notes. If you cite the same source again, or if a bibliography is included in the work, the note need only include the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title if more than four wordsand page number s.
However, in a work that does not include a bibliography, it is recommended that the full citation be repeated when it is first used in a new chapter. In the NB system, the footnote or endnote itself begins with the appropriate full-sized number, followed by a period and then a space.
Introduction to Bibliographies In the NB system, the bibliography provides an alphabetical list of all sources used in a given work. This page, most often titled Bibliography, is usually placed at the end of the work preceding the index. It should include all sources cited within the work and may sometimes include other relevant sources that were not cited but provide further reading.
Although bibliographic entries for various sources may be formatted differently, all included sources books, articles, websites, etc.
If no author or editor is listed, the title or, as a last resort, a descriptive phrase may be used. Though useful, a bibliography is not required in works that provide full bibliographic information in the notes.
Common Elements All entries in the bibliography will include the author or editor, compiler, translatortitle, and publication information. If an author is not listed first, this principle applies to compilers, translators, etc. Titles Titles of books and journals are italicized.The authority on APA Style and the 6th edition of the APA Publication Manual.
Find tutorials, the APA Style Blog, how to format papers in APA Style, and other resources to help you improve your writing, master APA Style, and learn the conventions of scholarly publishing.
Welcome to the Purdue OWL. This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. The Chicago / Turabian Style has two systems for references and can be used for the humanities (literature, history, art) or the sciences.
The first type is the Notes and Bibliography system, which uses footnotes or endnotes plus an alphabetical works cited page at the end of the document.
Center the title of your paper. Indent paragraphs five spaces, and begin. (Note: on subsequent pages, your last name and the page number will appear in the top right-hand corner of the page.) Format the title page of your paper for a social science field.
All page numbers appear in the top right-hand corner of the page, including page one. Erik, I don’t think you have to write serious journalism in order to make good use of a style guide.
The emphasis on style guides is consistency in all those issues . Welcome to the Purdue OWL. This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. (17th ed.) for more information, students may also find it useful to consult Kate L.
Turabian's the source title, and the page number(s), and consecutive references to the same work.