Are you sure you want to delete this answer? Yes Sorry, something has gone wrong. The decline of the Roman Empire is one of the events which traditionally mark the end of Classical Antiquity and the start of the European Middle Ages.
The number, however, is mentioned, and should be received with a degree of latitude. Without doubt no reliance can be placed on this passage of Josephus. The historian makes Agrippa give advice to the Jews, as to the power of the Romans; and the speech is full of declamation which can furnish no conclusions to history.
While enumerating the nations subject to the Romans, he speaks of the Gauls as submitting to soldiers, which is false, as there were eight legions in Gaul, Tac. Josephus infra places these eight legions on the Rhine, as Tacitus does.
The list seems authentic and accurate; the division of the provinces, and the different condition of the cities, are minutely distinguished. I have taken some pains in consulting and comparing modern travellers, with regard to the fate of those eleven cities of Asia.
Seven or eight are totally destroyed: Of the remaining three, Pergamus is a straggling village of two or three thousand inhabitants; Magnesia, under the name of Guzelhissar, a town of some consequence; and Smyrna, a great city, peopled by a hundred thousand souls. But even at Smyrna, while the Franks have maintained a commerce, the Turks have ruined the arts.
He had studied at Tralles. See a Dissertation of M. Aristides pronounced an oration, which is still extant, to recommend concord to the rival cities. The inhabitants of Egypt, exclusive of Alexandria, amounted to seven millions and a half, Joseph.
Under the military government of the Mamelukes, Syria was supposed to contain sixty thousand villages, Histoire de Timur Bec, l.
All these cities were connected with each other, and with the capital, by the public highways, which, issuing from the Forum of Rome, traversed Italy, pervaded the provinces, and were terminated only by the frontiers of the empire.
If we carefully trace the distance from the wall of Antoninus to Rome, and from thence to Jerusalem, it will be found that the great chain of communication, from the north-west to the south-east point of the empire, was drawn out to the length if four thousand and eighty Roman miles.
Mountains were perforated, and bold arches thrown over the broadest and most rapid streams. They united the subjects of the most distant provinces by an easy and familiar intercourse; out their primary object had been to facilitate the marches of the legions; nor was any country considered as completely subdued, till it had been rendered, in all its parts, pervious to the arms and authority of the conqueror.
The advantage of receiving the earliest intelligence, and of conveying their orders with celerity, induced the emperors to establish, throughout their extensive dominions, the regular institution of posts.
The provinces surrounded and enclosed the Mediterranean: The coasts of Italy are, in general, destitute of safe harbors; but human industry had corrected the deficiencies of nature; and the artificial port of Ostia, in particular, situate at the mouth of the Tyber, and formed by the emperor Claudius, was a useful monument of Roman greatness.
The following Itinerary may serve to convey some idea of the direction of the road, and of the distance between the principal towns.
From the wall of Antoninus to York, Roman miles. Rhutupiae or Sandwich, The navigation to Boulogne, The navigation to Dyrrachium, In all Roman, or English miles. In the time of Theodosius, Caesarius, a magistrate of high rank, went post from Antioch to Constantinople.
He began his journey at night, was in Cappadocia miles from Antioch the ensuing evening, and arrived at Constantinople the sixth day about noon. The whole distance was Roman, or English miles. Posts for the conveyance of intelligence were established by Augustus.
The couriers travelled with amazing speed. Blair on Roman Slavery, note, p. It is probable that the posts, from the time of Augustus, were confined to the public service, and supplied by impressment Nerva, as it appears from a coin of his reign, made an important change; "he established posts upon all the public roads of Italy, and made the service chargeable upon his own exchequer.
Pliny, though a favorite and a minister, made an apology for granting post-horses to his wife on the most urgent business. Pliny says Puteoli, which seems to have been the usual landing place from the East.
See the voyages of St. In the more remote ages of antiquity, the world was unequally divided. The East was in the immemorial possession of arts and luxury; whilst the West was inhabited by rude and warlike barbarians, who either disdained agriculture, or to whom it was totally unknown.
Under the protection of an established government, the productions of happier climates, and the industry of more civilized nations, were gradually introduced into the western countries of Europe; and the natives were encouraged, by an open and profitable commerce, to multiply the former, as well as to improve the latter.
It would be almost impossible to enumerate all the articles, either of the animal or the vegetable reign, which were successively imported into Europe from Asia and Egypt:Full text of "The history of the decline and fall of the Roman empire" See other formats.
The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire is a six-volume work by the English historian Edward Gibbon. It traces Western civilization (as well as the Islamic and Mongolian conquests) from the height of the Roman Empire to the fall of attheheels.com: Edward Gibbon. Andrew Darden Western Civilization Greece and Rome Essay Question #7 The fall of the Roman Empire was a mixture of internal and external factors that slowly lead to the complete decay of the cities; Rome and Constantinople.
The Fall of the Roman Empire Essay - The Roman Empire was, without a doubt, the most powerful governing body in the Mediterranean that ever was. At the peak of the Roman Empire, in the mid part of the first century, it covered about half of Europe, much of the Middle East, and the north coast of Africa.
INGLES- Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, vol. 4 pdf. In a short essay discuss four factors which brought about the decline and fall of the roman empire Fast food and our health essay write essay on my village dissertation on .