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In medieval Spain, ghazals were written in Hebrew as well as Arabic. An important writer of Hebrew ghazals, and one of its chief defenders, was Moses ibn Ezra Poems in the Arabic form have been written in a number of major West African literary languages like Hausa and Fulfulde.
African practitioners of this type of poetry were as concerned with adapting the Arabic meters as they were with adopting the themes and formal structure of Arabic poetry.
Hausa poets, for instance, adopted the Arabic forms and meters into their written poetry in the nineteenth century. The ghazal was also adopted very early on by the Persians, who developed it into something uniquely their own. These developments will be discussed at length in the following section.
Wherever the Arabian ghazal was introduced into the literature of another language — whether we are talking about Africa, Spain, or Persia — it was preceded by the cultural dominance of the Arabic language in that region.
Arabic was, at the very least, a major language of education in those cultures at the time when the ghazal was first adopted as a local poetic form.
The poets who pioneered the introduction of ghazals in their native languages had all written ghazals in Arabic as well. The Evolution of the Persian Ghazal The Persians during the Abbasid period were keen on adopting Arabic verse structures and meters into the Persian language.
The beginnings of the ghazal in Persian was a time of imitating and adapting the Arabic form. In truth, the earliest ghazals written in Persian are essentially Arabian ghazals. The first is a change in sensibilities regarding the poetic line.
The early Persian ghazal poets did not exhibit radical enjambment between the hemistiches, nor did they generally employ any kind of enjambment between the lines, which were showing themselves to be more and more like couplets.
There was, like in the Arabic ghazals, a strong overall continuity and flow of meaning between the lines of the poem.
The poems were still an organic whole. This would gradually change over time, with the couplets growing more and more autonomous.
It should come as no surprise to us that the ghazal was not to be the only type of Arabic poem that the Persians emulated. They also wrote panegyric poems, lampoons, boasts, and didactic compositions after the Arabic poetic models. Browne classifies Persian poetry into two broad categories: Since the above description of the ghazals written in Persian at this time can apply to quite a number of Arabic ghazals and none of the differences constitute an actual formal deviation from the Arabic norm, we can say that these early Persian examples still fit into the broad formal pattern of the Arabian ghazal.
An important Persian writer of ghazals at this time was Abdullah Jafar Rudaki Al-Unsuri praised his ghazals. It shows the close proximity that existed at the time between Persian and Arabic literature, in that critics would readily compare between the two.
While the topics that could be addressed by the ghazal widened — though still remaining within the general theme of longing — its form grew more and more distinctive.
The first significant development that occurred in the form of the Persian ghazal was the adoption of the takhallus. This takhallus should not be confused with the disengagement of the Arabian introductory ghazal.
It is unlikely that the term even derives from the husn al-takhallus of the Arabian introductory ghazal. The takhallus of the Persian ghazal is a Persian innovation, and it is a clear formal addition to the essential Arabic form. It was not at all in evidence during the era of Rudaki. Al-Khaqani and al-Anwari were consistent in their use of the takhallus.
The adoption of the takhallus was most likely a gradual development, becoming more and more ubiquitous throughout the 12th century. These two qualities, therefore, typify the ghazals written in Persian through the remainder of Ghaznavid era which lasted until up to some time after the Mongol invasion.
It is a form typified by brevity, takhallus, and a substantial autonomy of the couplet. He lived at the very end of the period in question, and indeed, had to flee from the Mongols when they invaded his home city of Shiraz in the year We know you lead a busy life, full of activities, many of which are required of you.
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