The concept of truth and perception

Constructivist epistemology Social constructivism holds that truth is constructed by social processes, is historically and culturally specific, and that it is in part shaped through the power struggles within a community. Constructivism views all of our knowledge as "constructed," because it does not reflect any external "transcendent" realities as a pure correspondence theory might hold.

The concept of truth and perception

Not Edited nor Revised The concept of African personality generally refers to manifestations of cultural uniqueness among Africans as reflected in their behavior, social norms, customs, values, beliefs, religious zeal, attitudes, explanations of the cosmos and the supernatural, social and political systems historically or in contemporary times.

The concept of the African personality has been addressed by many past and contemporary Africans and Afro-Americans. It has been defined differently when used to designate all the black people with an African heritage; mainly those of the Caribbean Islands and the United States of America.

Let us examine a few of these definitions, some of which do not precisely define the African personality but merely seek to describe and explain the personality and cultural uniqueness of Africans. If we were, from my own observation, to try to summarize the difference between African and Western psychology and I would say that the Westerner has a problem solving mind whilst the African has a situation experiencing mind.

There is a tendency in the West, whether the Westerners themselves know it or not, for people to assume that man lives to work. We believe that man works to live. This view of life gives rise to our high preference for leisure. With us, life has always meant the pursuit of happiness rather than the pursuit The concept of truth and perception beauty or truth.

We pursue happiness by rejecting isolationism, individualism, negative emotions, and tensions, on the one hand; and by encouraging positive emotions and habitual relaxation, and by restraining our desires on the other.

African psychology is the recognition and practice of a body of knowledge which is fundamentally different in origin, content, and direction than that recognized and practiced by Euro-American psychologists. The differences between African psychology and Euro-American psychology reflect the differences between Black people and White people or, in terms of basic culture, between Africans and Europeans.

The conception of a man is different among Africans and, unlike that of Cartesian Europe, is never dualist or dichotomist. There is never the separation between body and soul found elsewhere.

Certain prominent and relevant themes prevail in these works. For example, one fundamental issue is that of the African living in communities with little or no emphasis on the individualism prevalent in Western Society.

Another is that the African lives by natural rhythms, hence establishing a primordial attachment to the universe and the cosmos. Their attachment to nature makes it imperative that they be a religious people who believe in the powers of supernatural forces. Because the African is immersed in the totality of the social life and his strong belief in nature and the ancestral spirits, the African finds it difficult to tear social phenomenon into small bits for purposes of abstract analysis and philosophy.

One is the Western and Western-oriented scholars who express the view that the African does not exhibit Western traits of thought and culture because he is not yet civilized. Therefore, they believe what is needed is to provide him with Western knowledge and culture so that eventually he will become like the Westerner.

The other school of thought maintains the African behaves, thinks and lives as he does because he is unique. It holds that Western education and culture should be used to enhance further his uniqueness. A few of the views from these two opposing schools of thought will be briefly reviewed.

The African was charged with murder. But one claim he makes may be quoted. He claims that educated Africans have a limited choice of topics of conversation. As such, the only subject matter is politics.

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I think it was Lessing who wrote that when Africans are educated they are deprived of all subjects of conversation between themselves except politics. Any two Europeans will discuss sports, weather, women, money, wisecracks, the theatre, cinema, clothes, even books, and will perhaps mention politics in passing.

Two educated Africans will discuss politics for hours on end and when they have finished talking about politics have nothing more to say to each other. Africans have been less inventive and seem to make very little or no progress at all in the field of creative technology.

He quotes such virtues as determination, honesty, and creative imitation as generally lacking in African society.

To this effect he suggests that the African society must initiate a revolution of the mind. It is a revolution of the mind. Ours is the only race that has never made it anywhere in the world. We have for too long remained a poor imitator of the other races.

Discussing the issue of pride in the virtues of African communal life, life by rhythm and strong belief in the supernatural, Oyebola declares these as insufficient and claims there is no significant way in which they can contribute to advancement in technology.

As peoples who are just emerging from centuries of backwardness, foreign domination and dehumanization, the concept of African personality is a constructive force for the Black. This school of thought does not entertain, at length, any question regarding why the Africans behave and think as they do.

Implicitly, the school of thought over emphasizes technological advancement and westernization as the only way out of the problems of backwardness. With an identical orientation, LeVine [ix] goes into further detail. LeVine further says that there are certain characteristics which are distinctively African; that they prevail with dominant frequency in Africa: Some of these characteristics which LeVine ascribes to most Africans are, at best, highly subjective value judgments of the African society, by a person who has hardly lived within it, and they implicitly assume that Western social values should prevail in Africa.

His assertion that there is an emphasis on material transactions in interpersonal relations among Africans is vastly exaggerated.Western Concepts of God. Western concepts of God have ranged from the detached transcendent demiurge of Aristotle to the pantheism of Spinoza.

Nevertheless, much of western thought about God has fallen within some broad form of theism. Concept of African Personality. Among Zambian Students: Sociological Implications – Summary of M. A.

The concept of truth and perception

Thesis. By. Mwizenge S. Tembo. Research fellow. Fundamental Principles of Cognition If cognitive science is a real and autonomous discipline, it should be founded on cognitive principles that pertain only to cognition, and which every advanced cognitive agent (whether carbon- or silicon-based) should employ.

Fundamental Principles of Cognition

Phenomenology of Perception [Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Donald Landes, Taylor Carman] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. First published in , Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s monumental Phénoménologie de la perception signalled the arrival of a major new philosophical and intellectual voice in post-war Europe.

Breaking with the prevailing picture of existentialism and. Translated by Frederik Wisse. The Perception of Understanding The Concept of the Great Power. He who will know our great Power will become invisible, and fire will not be able to consume him.

The truth is the truth, and is not necessarily politically correct or socially acceptable. As a matter of fact, the truth is by no means politically correct or socially acceptable. So, if you came here looking for some conversation material or water-cooler material, then you came to the wrong website. - Your #1 Source for the Truth